Residential Building DMT / [tp3] architekten

first_img Year:  ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/543390/residential-building-dmt-tp3-architekten Clipboard Architects: [tp3] architekten Year Completion year of this architecture project Austria Residential Building DMT / [tp3] architektenSave this projectSaveResidential Building DMT / [tp3] architekten “COPY” Projects ArchDaily CopyHouses•Sankt Florian, Austria 2014 photographs:  Mark SengstbratlPhotographs:  Mark SengstbratlSave this picture!© Mark SengstbratlText description provided by the architects. The new residential house has been built on the basement of the old one and is now accessible through a generous staircase.Save this picture!© Mark SengstbratlThe basic idea for this single-story residence follows the analogy of an old Roman atrium, however, in this case the courtyard opens up towards the terrace and expands to the garden. Through this opening arise not only different view relationships but also various zones from private to semi-public.Save this picture!© Mark SengstbratlThe sheltered patio provides the living area with additional light and creates an atmospheric quiet space that invites to withdrawal. At the same time the courtyard leads to the open terrace which is aligned south west wards.Save this picture!Floor PlanThe facade is a game with windows, plaster and wood trim that runs around the house edges. In the entrance area and the private open space incisions have been made in the cubature that continue the game three-dimensionally.Save this picture!© Mark SengstbratlFor the construction unglued and chemically untreated solid wood, clay plaster and wood wool insulation were used in order to create a pleasant room climate and a high-quality ecological residence. The building was designed as a low-energy house with a heat pump and a controlled ventilation system with heat recovery.Save this picture!East ElevationSave this picture!North ElevationProject gallerySee allShow less2014 Wolfson Economics Prize Exhibition Explores the Potential of Garden CitiesEventMalaca House / Mario Martins AtelierSelected Projects Sharecenter_img Residential Building DMT / [tp3] architekten 2014 ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/543390/residential-building-dmt-tp3-architekten Clipboard “COPY” Year:  Photographs Save this picture!© Mark Sengstbratl+ 16 Share Houses CopyAbout this office[tp3] architektenOfficeFollowProductsWoodConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesSankt FlorianHousesAustriaPublished on September 13, 2014Cite: “Residential Building DMT / [tp3] architekten” 13 Sep 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesTechnowoodSiding Façade SystemPlasticsMitrexSolar SidingMetal PanelsAurubisCopper Alloy: Nordic BronzeArmchairsAndreu WorldGrand Raglan – Lounge ChairSinksBradley Corporation USASinks – Frequency® FL-SeriesPlantingSikaGreen RoofsStonesCosentinoSilestone Surfaces – Ethereal CollectionMetal PanelsLongboard®Aluminum Battens – Link & Lock – 8″Panels / Prefabricated AssembliesFranken-SchotterFacade Panels – Dietfurt LimestoneWindowsRabel Aluminium SystemsMinimal Casement Windows – Rabel 8400 Slim Super Thermal PlusWoodGustafsWood Cladding in St. Erik Eye HospitalLightsKKDCLighting – Groove FLEXMore products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my streamlast_img read more

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Warren Haynes, John Medeski, George Porter Jr. And More Recreated The Last Waltz And It Was Magnificent

first_imgA beautiful rendition of “Georgia On My Mind” featured stunning vocals from Jamey Johnson and Michael McDonald, followed by a rocking “Ophelia”.“The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down” was undoubtedly a highlight, with Johnson’s deep soulful voice perfectly complementing the tune. “Down South In New Orleans” was naturally a crowd pleaser for guests in the Big Easy, with Malone on lead vocals joined by Porter and the Nevilles.Muddy Waters’ guitar player, Bob Margolin, who appeared with the late blues legend in the original Last Waltz, made an appearance to perform Waters’ “Mannish Boy” on the anniversary of his death. It was an emotional moment for all. Up on cripple creek! #TheLastWaltz with @thewarrenhaynes!A video posted by Live For Live Music (@liveforlivemusic) on Apr 30, 2016 at 7:24pm PDT The explosive energy in the room carried on as the horn section joined on for another classic, “The Shape I’m In”, with McDonald taking lead vocals this time and filling the room with so much soul. The Weight with Lukas Nelson and Ivan Neville on vocals #TheLastWaltzA video posted by Live For Live Music (@liveforlivemusic) on Apr 30, 2016 at 9:54pm PDT Cyril Neville, Ivan Neville and George Porter, Jr. joined on for “Who Do You Love” to bring some New Orleans flavor. “The Weight” was another powerful number, with Lukas Nelson and Ivan Neville aiding on vocals. Attendees throughout the room joined hands and embraced during Bob Dylan’s “Forever Young”, with many even moved to tears. Haynes and Don Was did a superb job of coordinating this masterpiece of a show and cultivating a truly once in a lifetime experience for fans. The majestic and historic Saenger Theatre was the perfect backdrop to host such incredible talent for a perfectly executed tribute. Setlist: The Last Waltz at the Saenger Theatre New Orleans 4/30/16Up On Cripple Creek, Shape I’m In, Stage Fright, Georgia on my Mind, Who Do You Love, Down South in New Orleans, Ophelia, It Makes No Difference, Mystery Train, This Wheel’s on Fire, The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down, Rag Mama Rag, Life is a Carnival, Helpless, King Harvest, Mannish Boy, Further on up the Road, Forever Young, Caravan, The Weight, I Shall Be ReleasedEncore: Don’t Do It[Cover Photo via Cyril Neville’s Facebook] #TheLastWaltz with @thewarrenhaynes, Michael McDonald, John Medeski, Don Was and more. Holy shit!A video posted by Live For Live Music (@liveforlivemusic) on Apr 30, 2016 at 7:28pm PDT There are some shows that are so unique and special that they reach into your soul and stick with you forever. The Last Waltz managed to do just that. History was made at the magnificent Saenger Theatre in New Orleans last night with a heavy supergroup comprised of Warren Haynes (Musical Director, Guitar), John Medeski (Keys), Jamey Johnson (Guitar), George Porter Jr. (Bass), Dave Malone (Guitar), Don Was (Bass), Terence Higgins (Drums), Marc Mullins (Horns), plus special surprise guests Cyril Neville, Ivan Neville, Lukas Nelson, Bob Margolin, and Michael McDonald. This all-star lineup gathered to celebrate the 40th anniversary of The Last Waltz, The Band’s landmark, guest-filled final show at the Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco in 1976 which was later released as a renowned concert film directed by Martin Scorsese. Last night’s recreation also served as a tribute to late NOLA legend Allen Toussaint, who arranged the original Last Waltz horn section. Needless to say, the musical experience cultivated on stage was truly magical, and a proper homage to some of the most influential musicians of all time.Looking back at the original Last Waltz lineup, the sheer quantity of legends on one stage is just outrageous. Bob Dylan, Paul Butterfield, Neil Young, Emmylou Harris, Ringo Starr, Ronnie Hawkins, Dr. John, Joni Mitchell, Van Morrison, Muddy Waters, Ronnie Wood, Neil Diamond, Bobby Charles, The Staples, and Eric Clapton all joined The Band to bid them farewell. The show was produced by Bill Graham and ran for more than five hours. It is still considered one of the most important concerts in history.Now, nearly forty years later, some of today’s musical greats joined forces to recreate the legendary experience, and they did so to perfection. It was so true to the original that at times if you closed your eyes, you could see The Band. Medeski slayed the keys and really carried the band the entire time. Haynes was spectacular throughout the performance. Haynes, Johnson and McDonald all took turns on lead vocals, each bringing a different style.The supergroup opened with “Up On Cripple Creek” with Johnson leading the charge on vocals, as fans of all ages and walks of life danced and sang along to the classic tune. #TheLastWaltz with @thewarrenhaynes, @georgeporterjr, @ivanneville, John Medeski, Cyril Neville, Michael McDonald!A video posted by Live For Live Music (@liveforlivemusic) on Apr 30, 2016 at 7:46pm PDT Bob Margolin (from the original Last Waltz) channeling Muddy Waters on the anniversary of his death #TheLastWaltzA video posted by Live For Live Music (@liveforlivemusic) on Apr 30, 2016 at 9:18pm PDTlast_img read more

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Trio sets up competition for new LNG retrofitting solutions

first_imgIllustration; One of LNG powered vessels; Source: Wikimedia – under the CC BY 2.0 license; Image by: Alan JamiesonNanyang Technological University, DNV GL, and Shell have organized a competition for ideas to help reduce the cost of retrofitting an LNG fuel gas system to an existing ocean-going vessel.The trio set up the ‘Low-Cost LNG Retrofit (LCLR) Challenge’ to assist shipping companies to embrace cleaner fuels and reduce harmful emissions and adhering the International Maritime Organisation’s (IMO) guidelines on ship emissions that come into effect next year.Participants were encouraged to develop cost-effective and radical LNG fuel gas system designs and installation concepts that could be retrofitted to an existing vessel with a conventional fuel oil system.The competition attracted over 60 participants from NTU, the National University of Singapore, Singapore Institute of Technology, and Newcastle University Singapore with two teams from SIT and one from SIT-Newcastle University named as winners.Low Teck Seng, CEO of the National Research Foundation presented the prizes at the Singapore Maritime Technology Conference (SMTC) 2019 last week.The proposals by the teams outlined ways to reduce costs and streamline retrofitting operations such as using alternative materials to store LNG fuel, improved methods to install LNG fuel systems, and alternative methods to speed up retrofitting process.The proposals include using manganese-steel as a cheaper and viable alternative to the current nickel-based steels, factoring in the material’s tensile strength and feasibility to store LNG fuel at cryogenic temperatures – below 150 degrees Celsius.A panel of international experts from NTU, Shell, DNV GL, Keppel O&M, WinGD, Wartsila, Sembmarine, SMI, and the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore judged all project proposals.last_img read more

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Russell fires KKR to victory

first_img Maxwell and Wriddhiman Saha (24) put on 40 for the fourth wicket and added a further 67 for the fifth wicket with David Miller (13). However, Maxwell fell in the 16th over with 45 runs needed from 27 balls and Russell returned in the 18th over to remove the dangerous Miller and swing the advantage KKR’s way. In the final over, Russell ran out Axar Patel for 21 after Gurkeerat Singh drove the second delivery back to him and he turned and hit the stumps, with the batsmen at the non-striker backing up too far. Gurkeerat Singh was then run out off the next delivery, attempting a second run to the deep, and Russell picked up his fourth wicket when he trapped Swapnil Singh lbw with a full length delivery, to the first ball he faced. ADDING ON RUNS KOLKATA, India (CMC): Irrepressible West Indies all-rounder Andre Russell played a small cameo with the bat, grabbed four wickets and bowled a remarkable final over as Kolkata Knight Riders (KKR) shot to the top of the Indian Premier League (IPL) with a tense seven-run victory over Kings XI Punjab here yesterday. The Jamaican lashed 16 from 10 balls at the death as KKR rallied to 164 for three off their 20 overs, after they were sent in at Eden Gardens. KKR were propelled though by openers Robin Uthappa, who stroked 70, and Gautam Gambhir, who gathered 54. In reply, Kings XI’s run chase was crippled by pacer Russell’s opening burst, which reduced them to 13 for three in the fourth over; and despite Australian Glenn Maxwell’s superb top score of 68, the visitors could only reach 157 for nine. Kings XI required 12 runs from the final over but Russell, voted Man of the Match, proved outstanding in conceding just four runs, effecting a run out and grabbing another wicket to finish with four for 20 from his four overs. With the victory, KKR joined new boys Gujarat Lions on 12 points, but topped the standings courtesy of a superior net run rate. Uthappa lashed six fours and two sixes off 49 balls in posting 101 off 81 deliveries for the first wicket with Gambhir, before adding 36 for the second wicket with Yusuf Pathan, who finished on 19 not out. Russell arrived in the 17th over to help give KKR a flourish at the end, belting a four and a six in putting on 27 for the third wicket, before falling to the final delivery of the innings. The 28-year-old then gave KKR a fine start, claiming Marcus Stoinis without scoring off the fourth ball of the innings, with a single run on the board. In his next over, Russell had Manan Vohra caught at deep backward square without scoring as Kings XI tumbled at the top.last_img read more

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McClintock beats Senate seat rival

first_imgRepublican Sen. Tom McClintock of Thousand Oaks, overwhelming beat challenger Tony Farmer, a real estate agent from Fresno, in the Republican primary for lieutenant governor. The Democrat vote was roughly split between Insurance Commissioner John Garamendi, 61, and state Sen. Jackie Speier, 56. In other races, Democrat state Sen. Debra Bowen defeated state Sen. Deborah Ortiz, 49, in the secretary of state’s race and will face Republican incumbent Bruce McPherson in November. The primary contest for state insurance commissioner was focused on the Democrats. Cruz Bustamante, who has featured his weight loss in his campaign, beat John Kraft, 65, of South Pasadena. The Republican candidate, Steve Poizner, is a technology millionaire who has never held public office and ran unopposed. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORE11 theater productions to see in Southern California this week, Dec. 27-Jan. 2In the state treasurer’s race, Attorney General Bill Lockyer, 65, and a pair of Republican Assemblymen – Keith Richman, 52, and Board of Equalization member Claude Parrish – were running to become California’s chief banker. Parrish led in early returns. Democrats hoping to replace Controller and gubernatorial candidate Steve Westly as the state’s chief financial officer included Sen. Joe Dunn, 47, of Garden Grove and John Chiang, 43, a member of the state Board of Equalization. Republicans in the controller’s race were neck-and-neck – state Sen. Abel Maldonado, 38, of Santa Maria and former Assemblyman Tony Strickland, 36, of Thousand Oaks. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

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Minister urged to convene Beef Market Taskforce to implement agreement actions

first_imgFarmers are extremely frustrated over the inability of the Minister for Agriculture to get all stakeholders around the table for the inaugural meeting of the Beef Market Taskforce.That’s according to Fianna Fáil spokesperson on Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Charlie McConalogue TD.Speaking today (Weds), the Donegal TD, said: “We are almost three months on from the Irish Beef Sector deal agreed by seven national farm organisations and Meat Industry Ireland on September 15th, Minister Creed has failed to get the much-referenced Beef Taskforce up and running. “This is extremely disappointing. The Minister’s remarks that convening the taskforce was ‘in the hands of the chairman’ was very disingenuous. He cannot delegate out responsibility for the unresolved issue.“With steer prices still on the floor at €3.45, beef farmers feel abandoned with many reforms in the beef agreement awaiting progression and approval from the taskforce. This includes the beef market index which will strengthen transparency around beef, cattle and offal prices.“Factories have imposed weight limits recently. This is contrary to the four-month notice period that was to be observed under the September 15th deal. All processors must adhere to this.“The failure by Minister Creed to establish the task force is a slap in the face for the farmers that protested and agreed to step down protests on the basis the government would establish the taskforce. This failure by the government to act and follow-through is the type of inaction that lead farmers to the picket line in the first place. “Beef farmers feel abandoned with many reforms agreed in September still in limbo with the taskforce yet to meet. The Minister must stand up for farmers and get the taskforce operating and take full responsibility for this action. The buck stops with him and him alone,” concluded Deputy McConalogue.Minister urged to convene Beef Market Taskforce to implement agreement actions was last modified: November 13th, 2019 by Shaun KeenanShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:charlie mcconalogelast_img read more

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How Are Radioactive Dates Determined?

first_img A paper in Science last week1 by an international team of earth scientists discussed evidence for extinct plutonium-244 in Australian rocks dated at 4.2 billion years old.  Plutonium-244 has a half-life of 82 million years.  The authors, Turner et al., begin by assuming Pu-244 was well mixed within the cloud that presumably formed the solar system.  Since the Australian rocks are assumed to be among the oldest on earth, they wanted to determine the ratio of plutonium to uranium (Pu/U) for clues to the early evolution of the earth.  Xenon-136 would have been produced primarily by the more rapidly-decaying plutonium-244 in the early years of the earth, then the slower-decaying uranium-238 would gradually have predominated; but the ratio is so low, .004 to .008, that U tends to overwhelm the contribution from Pu unless the rocks are older than 3.8 billion years, the authors claim.     They extracted eight tiny zircon crystals just 50-200 millionths of a meter in size, from rocks they claim are up to 4.1 to 4.2 billion years old.  Detecting the xenon in such a small grain – a quadrillionth of a cubic centimeter – is beyond the range of most instruments, “comparable to blank levels and sensitivities of conventional noble gas mass spectrometers” (i.e., the instrument would show no xenon at all).  They developed what they claim is a more sensitive instrument able to get two orders of magnitude below that low detection threshold, and found a few thousand atoms of xenon.  They measured the xenon isotope ratios from the eight zircons, and graphed their results.  Only two of them fell on the expected Pu/U ratio line expected from the age of the rocks, compared with ratios measured in meteorites which presumably predate the formation of the earth.     The other six were “discordant,” off expectations by 24% to 97%.  Their explanation for these is: “This could be the result of preferential loss of the earlier-formed Pu xenon or the result of chemical fractionation of Pu and U during or before the formation of the zircons.”  How can this be, since they say “Xe is at least as strongly retained as Pb” [lead, the ending fission byproduct]?  Well, lead has also been found to leach out of zircons, and these crystals have been through a long, wild ride: “Nevertheless, Pb loss associated with metamictization is commonly observed in zircons, and, given the antiquity and complex history of the ancient detrital zircons, it is likely that loss of Xe will also have occurred in a portion of our samples.”.  This history could have included “diffusion or recrystallization events” and other metamorphic processes.  Most of the loss would have been early on, when plutonium production of xenon dominated, according to their model, so that explains why the ratio fell short of expectations.  “To be more definitive requires an additional relationship between the time of Xe loss and the degree of loss,” they suggest.  So their study can only claim partial success, and will require more work: “The highest implied Pu/U ratio is within the range of estimates from meteorites, but, in order to quantify a global Pu/U ratio for the early Earth, future work will require an improved understanding of the geochemical behavior of Pu relative to U and the rare earth elements in zircon crystallization.” A paper in the October issue of Geology1 dated the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary to four significant figures, 360.7 million years, with uranium-lead dating, from zircons in Germany.  A closer look at the German team’s methods of selection and treatment of samples, however, indicates a number of assumptions were made.  First, the target date of the period was established by biostratigraphy, or use of index fossils (see 05/21/2004 headline).  Second, since fossils don’t typically contain uranium, the radiometric dates have to be taken from non-fossiliferous material, like volcanic ash that might be in and around the fossils (as in this case) or removed from them (in many other cases).  Third, the zircons were subjected to air blasts, then heating and soaking in acid solutions for days.  Fourth, anomalous dates were thrown out and only 5 of 13 were kept.  The ones thrown out yielded impossibly old dates, which the team shrugged off as a bit of surprise: On the basis of 13 analyses (single zircons or zircon fragments), a younger zircon generation of 5 analyses is distinguished from older zircon generations (Table 1).  The latter, obviously inherited [i.e., formed in earlier periods], yielded 207Pb/206Pb ages of 444 to 2044 Ma (Table 1).  The abundance of Precambrian ages is a remarkable feature; note that no inherited zircons were detected in the study of Claou�-Long et al. (1992).  The error ellipses of the older zircons are clearly separated from a tight concordant cluster of the five youngest zircon analyses, which yield a 206Pb/238U concordia age of 360.5 � 0.8 Ma (Fig. 2A).  This age is interpreted as the crystallization age of the comagmatic zircon population and thus the time of eruption of the ash.  Comagmatic zircons are only a small fraction of the total zircon population.  It is possible that the youngest zircon generation occurs as micrometer-sized rims around inherited zircons as well, but these new growth zones were removed by the air-abrasion procedure prior to the dissolution of the grains. It might be surprising to outsiders to see the amount of pretreatment of samples that goes on as standard procedure in radiometric dating: Zircons selected for analyses were subjected to air abrasion (Krogh, 1982), and most samples were additionally cleaned for 2 h in concentrated HF-HNO3 (4:1) at 80°C to remove attached impurities.  After washing in 7N HNO3 at 80 �C for 25 min, individual grains were placed in multisample Teflon microcapsules and dissolved for at least 4 days in concentrated HF-HNO3 (4:1) at 180°C [285°F].  Subsequently, dissolved zircons were spiked with a mixed 233U-205Pb tracer solution, dried at 80°C, redissolved in 6N HCl [hydrochloric acid], and equilibrated at 180°C for 1 day.  After drying at 80°C, the samples were loaded on a single Re filament using a mixture of silica gel and 6N HCl-0.25N H3PO4. That was just for starters.  The team also “corrected” their measurements; for instance, “For each charge of samples, the maximum Pb blank was assumed to be equivalent to the total amount of nonradiogenic Pb in the analysis of the most radiogenic sample.”  Also, the measurements were done on extremely tiny grains, millionths of an inch in size, with lead masses on the order of tenths of picograms (billionths of a gram): “It was thus necessary to reduce the Pb blank as much as possible… by extremely careful sample handling.”  When measurements were still too low, assumptions were made: “The U blank was too small to be measured and was thus assumed to amount to 20% of the individual Pb blank, based on experience with the analysis of milligram-sized samples” (i.e., they assumed that their samples followed curves established for samples ten million times larger).     The date concluded for the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary, 360.7 million years, was not calculated directly.  It was interpolated from the ages that remained after the air blasts, acid, heat, and interpretation of selected samples. To most of us, the practice of radioactive dating seems like a highly-technical, incomprehensible skill that nevertheless (we are told) yields absolute ages of things.  We don’t know exactly how they arrive at the results, but are led to trust them because very smart people get their answers using hard science with extremely accurate equipment.  It might be helpful to look over their shoulders and see how it’s done.  A couple of recent papers dealt with uranium-lead dating, the kind of method that typically yields ages in the millions of years. 1Turner et al., “Extinct 244Pu in Ancient Zircons,” Science, Vol 306, Issue 5693, 89-91, 1 October 2004, [DOI: 10.1126/science.1101014]. 2Trapp et al., “Numerical calibration of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary: Two new U-Pb isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry single-zircon ages from Hasselbachtal (Sauerland, Germany),” Geology, Vol. 32, No. 10, pp. 857�860, doi: 10.1130/G20644.1. Notice what Turner’s group did.  First, they assumed what they need to prove: that the rocks were really 4.2 billion years old.  The age of the solar system (4.56 billion years old) and the age of the meteorites was not open to negotiation: these were givens, assumed from the start.  Then notice the extremely minute amounts they had to work with: crystals weighing a few millionths of a gram.  The xenon they were looking for was below the detection threshold of most instruments; how can anyone be sure that their laser instrument, which detected a few thousand atoms in the crystal, did not disrupt the atoms in the process?  (Xenon, after all, is a gas.)  Then notice that only 25% of their 8 samples met expectations, so the rest had to be explained away.  Well, look at the explanation!  The crystals were subject to violent, metamorphic processes of heating and recrystallization, and even though lead is more easily leached from the samples, the lead remained somehow and the xenon was lost.     These eight tiny zircons were found in detrital deposits.  According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, detritus is: “(1) loose material (as rock fragments or organic particles) that results directly from disintegration (2) a product of disintegration, destruction, or wearing away.”  How can any geochemist possibly know these itty bitty crystals, after presumably billions of years of plate tectonics, volcanism, erosion and weathering, hark back from the birth of the earth?  How can they know the composition of a presumed solar nebula, and the amount of processing and mixing of elements that occurred before the crust of the earth solidified?  Does any reader feel any confidence that this experiment tells us anything at all about the history of the earth billions of years ago?  Don’t be a sucker.  Zircons exist in the present, not in the past, and they don’t come with dates stamped on them.  To weave a story about what these rocks were doing 4.2 billion years ago requires many assumptions which are impossible to prove.  It also requires ignoring many other well-understood processes that show the earth could not possibly be that old.     To show that the Turner et al. paper was not an isolated case of cherry-picking data, the second paper in Geology should support the assertion that radiometric dating is fraught with circular reasoning, selective evidence and extrapolation (see also 09/20/2004 where Richard Kerr points out some of the nasty “little details that don’t make it into the literature,” especially the picking and choosing of data they like).  Again, this team tossed out over half the samples that yielded dates too old for their needs.  Some were found to be almost six times as old, which would have put them deep into the Precambrian.  To end up in this volcanic ash deposit, therefore, those older zircons would have had to survive at least one trip through a volcano’s throat, maybe many (after all, a lot can happen in 1.684 billion years, plus or minus 1.683995 billion).  The team just whisked away this difficulty with the statement, “the abundance of Precambrian ages is a remarkable feature.”  OK, let’s hear some more remarks.  In addition, six of the ten samples taken from another boundary bed “are based on pyramids broken off from whole zircon crystals, and these fragments are typically free of inherited core material,” according to more assumptions.  We think readers who hear about “absolute ages” determined from radiometric dating need to see the amount of hand-waving and hocus pocus that goes on in the inner sanctums of the Darwin Party chemistry labs.     The ratio that counts in any dating method is not the Pu/U ratio or the U/Pb, but the O/A ratio (observations to assumptions).  A conservative dating approach would observe present processes carefully and measure the rate of change, then try to set an upper limit on how long that process could operate, with a minimum of extrapolation: “this phenomenon cannot be more than x years old” (because, sooner or later, the source will run out, or the product will be saturated).  A liberal approach to dating, on the other hand, requires a lot of extrapolation.  It tries to set a lower limit on the age of something: “this phenomenon cannot be less than y years old.”  The conservative approach has a vastly higher observation-to-assumption ratio.  For instance, we’ve only known about radioactive decay for around 100 years.  Conservatively, we can extrapolate backward or forward a little, but should exercise caution beyond one or two orders of magnitude.  Most evolutionary geologists, however, recklessly extrapolate the observed rates of decay by seven orders of magnitude!     Even if radioactive decay rates could be trusted so far back, knowing that our theories of fundamental physics continue to undergo revolutions (e.g., dark energy, exotic particles, string theory), this paper illustrates that no one can know the initial conditions or subsequent processes that might have altered the samples, without making other assumptions.  Counting atoms and measuring current decay rates may be hard science, but the conclusions are embedded in an assumption-ridden context.  Astrologers were very good observers of the motions of the planets, but the accuracy of their measurements did not justify their assumptions.  Before accepting any conclusion pronounced by the wizards, always separate the observations from the assumptions.  Respect observations; doubt assumptions.(Visited 28 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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Zim hand Bafana 2-1 friendly defeat

first_img11 September 2013Zimbabwe handed a mostly South African-based Bafana Bafana a 2-1 beating in an international friendly at Orlando Stadium in Soweto on Tuesday evening.In fact, 18 of the players on the pitch at the start of the contest ply their trade in the Premier Soccer League (PSL). Goalkeeper Darren Keet was the only South African who plays his football outside of the country.CHANThe line-up revealed, perhaps, some of coach Gordon Igesund’s thinking ahead of next year’s African Nations Championships (CHAN), which take place in South Africa from 11 January to 1 February.The event will feature national teams made up of only home-based players. In the Zimbabwean match, however, Igesund was unable to select any players from Orlando Pirates, who were not considered because of club commitments.Perhaps, with the Buccaneers’ players playing in their backyard, the result might have been different, but Zimbabwe were full value for their victory.Scoring chanceThe Warriors took the game to Bafana Bafana and created a scoring chance in the very first minute, but Kaizer Chiefs striker Knowledge Musona fired high over the bar.Keet was then called on to deny Kingston Nkhatha by racing off his line to deny the Amakhosi’s man run onto a long ball.Khama Billiat enjoyed a fine game and was a constant thorn in the home team’s side. He came close with a long range effort, but was just off target.After good build-up play, Bernard Parker had a chance for Bafana Bafana 10 minutes from the break, but the Zimbabwean defence scrambled and conceded a corner.Reneilwe Letsholonyane then put in a good run, but the linesman blew the call and flagged him for being offsides.LeadFive minutes into the second half, the Warriors took the lead from a corner. After bringing the ball down smartly off his chest, Musona blasted the ball past Keet, with a powerful left-footed volley that left the goalkeeper helpless.Billiat posed another question when he tried to set Nkhatha up, but Keet was aware of the danger and came out quickly to snuff it out.Parker might have levelled for South Africa, but his header was off target, passing to the right of Washington Arubi’s goal.Tsepo Masilela narrowly missed out on scoring his first goal for Bafana Bafana in the 74th minute, but his shot frustratingly passed just over the bar.Wrong callZimbabwe should have taken a 2-0 lead 10 minutes from time, but Musona was blown up for being offside. Replays suggested the linesman got it wrong again.The match passed into time added on and four minutes after the regulation 90 Cuthbert Malajila put the Warriors two goals ahead after being set up by Nkhata, whose work left the Sundowns’ man needing only a tap-in to score.Parker snatched a late consolation goal for South Africa with a shot from distance, but there was no time left to find a second goal and Zimbabwe claimed the spoils 2-1.last_img read more

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